The Most Effective Police Programs and Practices

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By Leonard A. Sipes, Jr.

Thirty-five years of speaking for national and state criminal justice agencies. Former Senior Specialist for Crime Prevention for the Department of Justice’s clearinghouse. Graduate-Johns Hopkins University.

Article

Below is a summation of evaluations from Crime Solutions.Gov of the US Department of Justice regarding effective law enforcement practices and programs.

The simplest summation of most of the DOJ cited programs deemed “successful” or “promising” is a police and community focus on people and places with arrest as necessary.

We present this data within the context of a renewed debate on American policing, race relations and increasing crime.

The New York City Miracle

There is little mention in the Department of Justice summation below of the Broken Windows style of policing.

Crime and disorder in New York City was legendary and every student of criminology studied the broken windows theory of proactive policing where by taking care of the little stuff, the big stuff would take care of itself.

Signs of disorder (i.e., loitering, littering, public intoxication or drug use/sales, jaywalking, graffiti) were immediately addressed and in the process, individuals were to be searched for major drugs and weapons.

The issues most citizens were concerned about (crime, grime, and disorder) were confronted and police had the legal right to search the person. Minor infractions were given a summons and those toting guns and major drugs were arrested.

Crime was driven down and most citizens were happy with the results.  It received widespread media attention throughout the country. The practice was successfully challenged in court approximately three years ago as unconstitutional, but crime in New York remains amazingly low compared to previous years.  The New York City Miracle was enthusiastically embraced by many cities.

Most Policy Makers Form their Opinions on Crime From Newspaper Articles

There are few universally accepted terms in law enforcement so everyone has their own perceptions as to what Hot Spots or Problem Oriented Policing or Community Policing or Focused Deterrence Strategies, or a focus on repeat offenders really means. There is no national policing model in the United States; every one of the 18,000 law enforcement agencies chooses how they will fight crime based on local conditions. Every city in the United States took the results from New York, DOJ research and other cities and applied them differently.

At the same time, there is no “one” publication or website where politicians, policy makers or criminal justice people go to for guidance. Most form their opinions from newspaper articles, thus the Associated Press is by far the most influential criminal justice entity in the United States.

There were cities  using a ‘”Community Oriented Policing Approach” that engaged in aggressive arrests. There were cities that used the New York City model but worked closely with community organizations as to the style of policing they wanted.

The same applied to “mass arrests.” When is a “mass arrest” different from “quality arrests” as a result of  problem-solving policing?

The inference is fewer arrests based on solving a problem, but the heart and soul of law enforcement actions in high-crime neighborhoods is listening to community input, locking the right people up and holding them accountable for their actions.

Our reading of what works in law enforcement (list below) suggests that positioning cops in high crime neighborhoods and arresting people suspected of criminal activities is standard police practice. We may call the initiative Hot Spots or Problem Oriented Policing or a focus on repeat offenders, but most of the programs below support what most cities did, which was to listen to community input, figure out where the high crime areas were, and flood the area with cops to make arrests when warranted.

Because of riots and questions of race and the appropriateness aggressive policing and arrests, there is currently a national reexamination of police practices with an expressed desire for policing to be different, gentler and more community focused.

Because of the reexamination and prosecutions of police officers, cops seem to be distancing themselves from aggressive policing. Many, including the head of the FBI, suggest that a lack of proactive or aggressive policing is the reason for the increase in crime throughout the country. Recent commentary by citizens in Chicago who, are experiencing huge increases in violent crime, charge that police, “Are leaving us out to dry,” by not being aggressive.

Have We Changed our Minds?

As a result of the recent Department of Justice’s report on Baltimore and policing in other cities, media coverage seems to attack police officers in the harshest terms, but many believe that the larger society (including the Department of Justice and the media) supported aggressive policing and arrests.

The Department of Justice and police training and literature over decades encouraged proactive policing tactics and arrests through technical assistance and evaluations. The DOJ also poured billions of dollars into creating new prison beds to accommodate assertive police actions. Under President Obama, there has been little change in the use of incarceration.

At what point is aggressive policing the fault of individual cops or the responsibility of the institutions that supported/demanded it?

The media accepted aggressive policing as something that benefits society; there was little opposition in mainstream newspapers. It was those reports that spread the use of aggressive policing.

If society has changed as to the level of police aggressiveness it wants, then cities and communities need to spell out exactly the kind of policing they want. This site has repeatedly called for written contracts expressing what communities want cops to do. Not doing so is cowardly.

Everyone wants guardians rather than enforcers, but major cities are being hammered by an increase in homicides and violent crime.  By one Department of Justice survey, Baltimore has the highest increase in homicides.

If we change our minds as to what’s acceptable as to law enforcement, and the new policies go wrong (skyrocketing crime?) don’t blame individual cops for doing what they are asked to do. There is a point where the larger society needs to take responsibility for what it demands.

Contact us at [email protected]. Media on deadline, use [email protected].


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CrimeSoultions.Gov

CrimeSoultions.Gov rates programs as effective (green check), promising (yellow check) or no effects (red check). 

Source: http://www.crimesolutions.gov/

Law Enforcement Programs

Title Evidence Rating Topics Summary
Biting Back in Huddersfield (England) Effective - One study A program designed to reduce repeat victimization in domestic burglary and thefts from cars. The program is rated Effective. There was a greater decrease in recorded and repeats crime than the surrounding areas. There was an increase in satisfaction with police services and no evidence of displaced crime.
Checkpoint Tennessee Effective - One study A year-long statewide sobriety checkpoint program in Tennessee intended to combat impaired driving and reduce alcohol-related car crashes. The program is rated Effective. Researchers observed a 20.4 percent reduction over the projected number of drunk-driving fatal crashes that would have occurred with no intervention. There was a statistically significant reduction in nighttime single-vehicle injury crashes after the start of the program, positive public opinion and awareness of the program.
DNA Field Experiment Effective - One study A program to evaluate the impact of DNA evidence collection and testing on the investigation of high-volume property crimes. The program is rated Effective. Property crime cases resulted in more than twice as many suspects identified, arrested and more cases accepted for prosecution, compared with traditional investigation.
Engine Immobilizers Effective - One study Devices that prevent a vehicle from starting unless they receive the correct signal from the driver. The goal of these systems is to reduce car theft. The program is rated Effective. Cars fitted with immobilizers reduced rates of theft compared with cars not fitted with the device.
High Point Drug Market Intervention Effective - One study A problem-oriented policing program that aims to eliminate overt drug markets and the problems associated with them through a deterrence-based, pulling-levers framework. The program is rated Effective. The Intervention had a statistically significant impact on reducing violent incidents in the target areas.
Hot Spots Policing (Lowell, Mass.) Effective - One study A crime-reduction policing strategy that uses a disorder policing approach to concentrate on improving physical and social order in high-crime locations in Lowell, Mass. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant reduction of the total number of calls for service in the treatment areas relative to the control. Observed disorder was alleviated and calls for service were not significantly displaced into surrounding treatment areas.
Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) Effective - One study An automated ballistics imaging and analysis system that populates a computerized database of digital ballistic images of bullets and casings from crime guns. The system assists forensic experts in making identifications for investigations and trials. The program is rated Effective. There was an increase in cold hits after system implementation.
Milwaukee (Wis.) Homicide Review Commission (MHRC) Effective - One study A program that attempts to reduce homicides and non-fatal shooting provides a unique through a multidisciplinary and multiagency homicide review process. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant, 52 percent, decrease, in the monthly count of homicides in the intervention districts.
Minneapolis (MN) Hot Spots Experiment Effective - One study A program that increased police presence in crime “hot spots” to reduce criminal activity in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The program is rated Effective. In hot spots that did not receive intensified police patrols, there was a greater increase in citizen calls to police than in the experimental locations. There also was less observed disorder at the experimental sites.
Operation Ceasefire (Boston, Mass.) Effective - More than one study A problem-solving police strategy that seeks to reduce gang violence, illegal gun possession, and gun violence in communities in Boston, Mass. The program is rated Effective. There was a statistically significant decrease in youth homicides, citywide gun assaults, calls for service, and the percentage of recovered handguns that had a fast time-to-crime (the time between a firearm’s first sale at retail and subsequent recovery in a crime).
Operation Cul-de-Sac Effective - One study The program supports the installation of permanent traffic barriers in high-crime neighborhoods to reduce gang drive-by shootings, assaults and homicides. The program is rated Effective. The intervention significantly reduced drive-by shootings; caused predatory crime to fall 8 percent the first year and 37 percent the second year of the program; and increased student attendance by around 200 students per day at the local high school after the street closures.
Operation Peacekeeper Effective - One study A community and problem-oriented policing program in Stockton, CA, to reduce gang involvement and violence among urban youth (10-18). Youth Outreach Workers served as mentors for youth in neighborhood settings. This program is rated Effective. The program was associated with a significant decrease in the monthly number of gun homicides. Also, when compared to gun homicide trends in other midsize California cities, the reduction in homicides in Stockton could be associated with the program.
Philadelphia Policing Tactics Experiment: Offender-Focused Policing Effective - One study This is a proactive, hot spots policing tactic that focuses attention on repeat violent offenders operating in neighborhoods with high violent-crime rates. The program is rated Effective. Hot spots that received the treatment reported significantly fewer violent crimes and violent felonies relative to the control areas. However, citizens’ perceptions of crime and safety were not impacted by the intervention.
Police Foot Patrol–Philadelphia 2009 Effective - More than one study This program used a foot patrol to reduce violent crime in hot spots in Philadelphia, Pa. It involved having rookie officers patrol areas (an average of 1.3 miles of streets) during two shifts per day. This program is rated Effective. There were significant reductions in reported violent crime, although the effect seemed to fade once officers were removed from their targeted beats.
Portland (OR) Burglary Prevention Project Effective - One study A community crime-prevention program in Portland, Oregon, that used a combination of private prevention techniques and neighborhood prevention efforts to protect neighborhoods from burglary. The program is rated Effective. Homes that participated in the program had lower burglary rates than those that did not. The results indicate that there was a citywide decline in burglary rates that could possibly be attributed to the program.
Safer Cities Programme (UK) Effective - More than one study An initiative designed to reduce crime, fear of crime, and to create safer environments for economic and community life to flourish. The program is rated Effective. There was a reduction in burglary rates, burglary risk and the fear of burglary. For programs of moderate to high intensity, crime rates dropped in surrounding areas, while displacement was found more with the low-intensity programs.
San Diego (Calif.) Drug Abatement Response Team (DART) Effective - One study This program is designed to reduce drug dealing at residential rental properties by encouraging improved property management practices. The program is rated Effective. Properties that received the full intervention (letter from police department, meeting with police and code enforcement, and threatened nuisance abatement) experienced a significant reduction in crime at rental properties with drug problems and more drug offender evictions.
Specialized Multi Agency Response Team (SMART) Effective - One study A drug-control program designed to reduce drug-related problems and improve habitation conditions at targeted sites. The program is rated Effective. Half the treatment sites experienced improvements in field contacts or arrests. There were reductions in the number of individuals contacted or arrested at the same SMART site; in the number of persons displaced to a catchment area address; and in the number of new individuals attracted to a site (suggesting a small net diffusion of benefits).
Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), Los Angeles (Calif.) Promising - More than one study A nonprofit organization created by neighborhood property owners or merchants to provide services, activities, and programs to promote local improvements and public safety. The program is rated Promising. Evaluation results suggest a reduction in crime and arrests and no crime displacement.
CCTV in Five English Cities Promising - One study Closed circuit television cameras were installed in five English town and city centers to reduce crime. The program is rated Promising. Visits to emergency departments for assault-related injuries decreased. Although police-recorded violence increased in both the intervention and control sites, it increased more in the intervention sites than the control sites–a variation across sites and not statistically significant.
CCTV in Gillingham, England Promising - One study A program to install closed-circuit television cameras in the town center and adjacent car parks in Gillingham, England. The program is rated Promising. There was a reduction of crime in the treatment area, specifically driven by declines in property crime. However, violent crime increased in the treatment and comparison area. These increases were statistically significant.
CCTV in Philadelphia (Pa.) Promising - One study A program to install closed-circuit television cameras at different locations in the city of Philadelphia. The program is rated Promising. Camera implementation had no significant impact upon the amount of serious crime in the target area but did significantly reduce the number of crime events and disorder type crimes. There were mixed results with respect to displacement/diffusion of benefits across evaluation sites.
CCTV in Redton, England Promising - One study The town of Redton, England, installed closed-circuit television cameras in the central commercial district to reduce crime. The program is rated Promising. Using a trend analysis, there was no significant overall crime decrease. However, in analyses of separate types of crime, controlling for trends, the reduction was significant for some types of crime (theft of and from vehicles), but not from others (other theft, shoplifting).
CCTV in Southwark, England Promising - One study A program to install closed circuit television cameras in town centers to reduce crime and fear of crime. The program is rated Promising. The evaluation showed a reduction in crime rates and improved public safety perceptions. With respect to displacement, buffer area reductions either matched or exceeded reductions in the target areas.
Cardiff (Wales) Violence Prevention Programme (CVPP) Promising - One study This is a multiagency partnership designed to prevent violence and reduce violence-related, emergency room admissions. The program is rated Promising. Both hospital admissions related to violence and violence recorded by the police decreased as a result of the program, when compared with the comparison cities.
Charlotte–Mecklenburg (N.C.) Police Department Domestic Violence Unit Promising - One study A specialized police unit to prevent recidivism among domestic violence offenders and assist victims of domestic violence. The program is rated Promising. Assigned offenders are less likely to recidivate compared to the control group. Offenders assigned to the unit had significantly lower recidivism frequency rates in comparison to offenders assigned to standard patrol.
Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Promising - One study The program brings police, local government agencies, and the community together to prioritize problems and prevention efforts in five Chicago neighborhoods. The program is rated Promising. The study found that in close to half of the target beats, there was a reduction in crime versus what was found in comparison beats. However, the results also showed that there were some unsuccessful cases where the crime rate in the intervention increased versus the comparison beat.
Click-It-or-Ticket Campaign (Mass.) Promising - One study This is a seat-belt-enforcement campaign initiated and funded by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The overall goal is to improve road safety by requiring drivers and passengers in vehicles to properly wear their seat belts. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant decrease in motor vehicle accidents, but no significant impact on non-fatal injuries caused by vehicle accidents.
Community Trials Intervention to Reduce High-Risk Drinking (RHRD) Promising - One study A multicomponent program for all ages that aims to reduce underage drinking, binge drinking, and drinking and driving by using environmental interventions and community mobilization. The program is rated Promising. The program evidence is mixed with one study finding differences between the intervention and comparison on some measures. However, another study found few statistically significant differences in their targeted outcome evaluation of alcohol-related injuries and police incidents.
Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative (CAGI) Promising - One study A crime focused initiative, designed to address gang-related gun homicides in selected cities. The initiative involved a comprehensive model of suppression (enforcement), prevention, and reentry. The program is rated Promising. There was a significant reduction in gun homicides related to gang crime in cities that implemented the initiative.
Compstat (Fort Worth, Texas) Promising - One study A policing management program that depends on the cooperation of the entire agency to create a “focused” approach to reduce crime and disorder. The program is rated Promising. The program did not result in increased arrests for all six types of nuisance offenses. However, there was an increase in drunkenness, drug offenses and disorderly conduct arrests. There was no statistically significant effect on violent crime, but an effect on the reduction of property and index offense rates.
Cure Violence (Chicago, Illinois) Promising - One study A violence prevention program that uses a public health approach, using trained street violence interrupters and outreach workers, public education campaigns, and community mobilization to reduce shootings and killings. This program is rated Promising. The program was associated with significant reductions in shootings, killings, and retaliatory homicides and also appeared to make shooting hot spots cooler in some neighborhoods but not others.
Dallas (Texas) Anti-Gang Initiative Promising - One study A policing initiative that used intensive patrol and enforcement of curfew and truancy ordinances to reduce gang-related activity and violence among juveniles in Dallas, Texas. The program is rated Promising. There was a statistically significant decrease in violent gang-related offenses. There were no statistically significant reductions in gang-related offenses reported to police.
Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) in Kansas Promising - More than one study This is a law-enforcement model in which both location-based crime and automobile crash data is analyzed to determine where such incidents disproportionately occur (“hot spots”) and to employ targeted traffic enforcement strategies. The program is rated Promising. The areas of targeted enforcement experienced significant declines in robberies, burglaries, and traffic crashes.
Directed Patrol and Self-Initiated Enforcement in Hot Spots (St. Louis, Missouri) Promising - One study This is an experiment designed to assess the effectiveness of different hot spots tactics (i.e., directed patrol and self-initiated enforcement) on firearm violence. The program is rated Promising. Hot spots that received the self-initiated enforcement experienced a significant reduction in firearm assault rates. However, no differences were found on firearm robbery rates.
Drug Market Analysis Program (Jersey City, NJ) Promising - One study A “hot spots” policing program targeting identified drug activity locations to reduce public disorder by engaging local residents and business owners and applying pressure via crackdowns. The program is rated Promising. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control locations on violence and property offenses; but, there were reductions in disorder and narcotics offenses and fewer calls for service for some measures in the treatment catchment areas.
Electronic Monitoring (Florida) Promising - One study Uses systems based on radio frequency or global positioning system (GPS) technology to monitor offenders’ locations and movements in community-based settings. The program is rated Promising. Compared with the control group on other forms of community supervision, the technology reduced the risk of failure to comply.
Gang Reduction Program (Los Angeles, California) Promising - One study A comprehensive, multiyear initiative to reduce youth gang crime and violence through a combination of strategies. This program is rated Promising. It was associated with a significant decrease in the number of calls reporting shots fired and gang-related incidents in the target area. However, it did not have a significant effect on the number of calls reporting vandalism or gang or non-gang related serious violence incidents or on attendance levels of elementary, middle, or high schools.
Gunshot Detection Technology (Hampton, VA) Promising - One study An acoustic surveillance system installed in high-crime areas that alerts police to gunshots fired and provides precise information on the location of the shots. The program is rated Promising. The study found promising results with regard to the gunshot detection system’s ability to improve community detection, as well as improve the data accuracy of gunshot events. However, results did not show a significant impact on the technology’s ability to reduce crime.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Directed Patrol Promising - One study A policing program that uses a proactive directed patrol strategy to reduce firearms violence in Indianapolis, Indiana. The program is rated Promising. The effect on reducing firearms crime was seen in the North target beats, but not the East. Control police beats showed an increase in gun crimes, and in the remaining areas of Indianapolis homicides increased.
Indianapolis (Ind.) Violence Reduction Partnership (IVRP) Promising - More than one study A policing program that targeted high-risk chronic offenders in order to reduce gun violence in Indianapolis, Indiana. The program is rated Promising. When compared to the homicide trends in six other cities, Indianapolis was the only one that experienced a statistically significant decline. Gang-related homicides and homicides involving 15-24 year olds also showed a statistically significant decline.
Kansas City (MO) Gun Experiment Promising - One study A police patrol project aimed at reducing gun violence, drive-by shootings and homicides. During the experimental period, extra police patrols were placed in gun crime “hot spots” in a target area. The program is rated Promising. There was an increase in gun seizures, a decline in gun crimes, some evidence of program benefit diffusion, and no displacement. There were lower homicides in the targeted area but no statistical difference in drive-by shootings or other types of crimes.
Kansas City (MO) Police Department Street Narcotics Unit Promising - One study A special police unit developed to conduct raids of crack houses to reduce crack-related crime and improve public order in Kansas City, Missouri. The program is rated Promising. There were fewer calls for service and reported offenses for the experimental group. The Follow-up effects were sustained for both outcomes for about 2 weeks after the experiment ended.
Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) Program (Seattle, Washington) Promising - One study This is a pre-booking, community-based diversion program designed to divert those suspected of low-level drug and prostitution offenses away from jail and prosecution and into case management and other supportive services. The program is rated Promising. The intervention group was significantly less likely to have been arrested, compared with the control group, at the shorter- and longer-term follow ups. However, there was no significant impact on non-warrant arrests.
Little Village Gang Violence Reduction Project (Comprehensive Gang Model) Promising - One study A comprehensive, community-wide program designed to reduce serious violence in Chicago’s gang-ridden Little Village neighborhood. The program is rated Promising. The project appeared to reduce arrests for violent crimes, serious violent crimes, and drug crimes, but did not have an effect on arrests for property crimes or total arrests.
NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol Promising - One study This is a structured interview protocol for professionals conducting forensic interviews with suspected child sexual abuse victims. The program is rated Promising. More protocol cases resulted in filed charges compared to pre-NICHD protocol cases. For those cases that went to trial, significantly more protocol cases resulted in a found guilty at trial outcome. Overall there were mixed results on findings for delays across case flow.
Nashville (Tenn.) Drug Market Intervention Promising - One study A policing program that used community mobilization, strategic planning, and pulling levers notifications to reduce drug dealing in a high-crime area. The program is rated Promising. As a result of the intervention, postintervention drug crime incidents declined, and surveyed residents believed that street drug markets were less of an issue after implementation. There was no statistically significant evidence that the intervention impacted Type 1 UCR offenses or calls for service.
Neighborhood Enrichment with Vision Involving Services, Treatment, and Supervision (NEW VISTAS) Promising - One study A comprehensive, neighborhood-based, family-focused service delivery model that employed wraparound services and case management for criminally involved families with identified substance abuse problems. The program was rated Promising. There was a significant decrease in youth alcohol/drug problems, out-of-home placements (both institutional and noninstitutional), and recidivism rates for participating youths who completed the program.
Operation Ceasefire: Hollenbeck Initiative Promising - One study A policing initiative that targeted specific dangerous gangs using aggressive enforcement to reduce gun violence. The program is rated Promising. In the five targeted police reporting districts, violent crime decreased by 37 percent during the six months after the intervention. This was a significant change in comparison to the other districts, where violent crime decreased by only 22 percent. The intervention also reduced gun and gang crime.
Operation Hardcore (Los Angeles, CA) Promising - More than one study A judicial intervention implemented to improve the prosecution of gang-related crimes through the use of specialized units. The program is rated Promising. There was a decrease in case dismissals, higher conviction and incarceration rates and fewer case rejections. There was no significant difference in the rate of pleas.
Operation Impact (Newark, New Jersey) Promising - One study A saturation foot-patrol initiative implemented in Newark, New Jersey, in 2008. The program is rated Promising. The intervention reduced overall violence, aggravated assault, and shootings in the targeted area. Evidence for a reduction in murder rates was less clear and The initiative does not appear to have influenced the number of robberies.
Operation Safe Streets (Philadelphia, Pa.) Promising - One study A problem-oriented policing program targeted at high-crime areas and drug corners to prevent violent and drug-related crime. The program is rated Promising. Localized analysis of the intervention areas found reductions in violent and drug crime rates. Analysis on the adjoining areas suggests the intervention caused some spatial diffusion of benefits for violent and drug crime displacement. There were no statistically significant effects on citywide homicides, violent or drug crime rates.
Phoenix (Ariz.) Repeat Offender Program Promising - One study A postarrest case-management program that used cooperation between police and prosecutors to increase the likelihood that high-risk chronic offenders would be convicted and incarcerated. The program is rated Promising. The experimental group was more likely to be sentenced to prison and have longer prison sentences. There was no statistically significant difference for conviction rates between the groups.
Prevention of Shoplifting Promising - One study A crime prevention program designed to assess the effect of store redesign, electronic tagging, and the deployment of uniformed guards on the reduction of shoplifting in high-theft stores. The program is rated Promising. The study found behavioral change with some interventions (electronic tagging and store redesign), but not with others (presence of a guard). Moreover, some behavioral changes were short lived while others lasted longer.
Problem-Oriented Policing in Violent Crime Places (Jersey City, NJ) Promising - One study The program is a focused policing strategy intended to reduce violent crime in high-crime locations through the modification of specific characteristics and situations that promote violence. The program is rated Promising. The citizen calls for service were significantly reduced at three of the five treatment locations. Reported criminal incidents were significantly reduced at two of the treatment places. Social and physical disorder were alleviated 91 percent.
Project Exile Promising - One study A crime reduction strategy in Richmond, Virginia implemented to deter former and would-be offenders from carrying and using firearms, with an overall goal of reducing firearm-related homicides. The project is rated Promising. Firearm-related homicides decreased significantly in the target area, compared with other U.S. cities where the program was not implemented.
Project Safe Neighborhoods (Chicago) Promising - One study This is a comprehensive antiviolence initiative that uses collaborative strategies to alter perceived costs and benefits of gun violence and is intended to reduce illegal gun offending among ex-offenders. The program is rated Promising. Treatment districts experienced a 37 percent reduction in quarterly homicide rates and fewer gun-related homicides. There was a modest reduction of aggravated battery/assaults in the treatment district areas.
Project Safe Neighborhoods (National Evaluation) Promising - One study This program is a multiple agency initiative to reduce gun violence in large cities through enhanced enforcement and deterrence. The program is rated Promising. Cities that received the program experienced a significant reduction in violent crime relative to control cities between 2000 and 2006.
Public Surveillance Cameras (Baltimore, Maryland) Promising - One study Public surveillance systems include a network of cameras and components for monitoring, recording, and transmitting video images. The ultimate goal of installing public surveillance cameras throughout the city was to reduce the historically high levels of crime. The program is rated Promising. Three of the four selected areas in Baltimore, Md., experienced significant declines in crime rates.
Queensland (Australia) Community Engagement Trial (QCET) Promising - One study The program tested whether police use of a specialized script (based on principles of procedural justice) during random breath-test traffic stops could improve perceptions of police and change people’s views about drinking and driving. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly change citizens’ views on police and drinking and driving, increase satisfaction and compliance with police, and strengthen perceptions of procedural justice and police fairness.
Richmond (CA) Comprehensive Homicide Initiative Promising - One study A problem-oriented policing program that offered a broad collection of enforcement and non-enforcement strategies, including a middle school mentoring program, designed to reduce homicide in Richmond, California. This program is rated Promising. It had a significant impact on homicide reduction in Richmond.
Rockford Pulling Levers Drug Market Intervention Promising - One study A problem-oriented policing strategy that aims to combat drug markets and the problems associated with them, in a high- crime neighborhood, through a deterrence-based, pulling levers framework. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce nonviolent offenses in the target area, but not violent offenses.
Safe Street Teams (Boston, MA) Promising - One study A place-based, problem-oriented policing strategy implemented by the Boston (Massachusetts) Police Department in response to a sudden increase in violent crimes. The program is rated Promising. The results showed that the intervention had significant reductions in total violent index crimes, robberies, and aggravated assaults over the 10-year study period; however, there were no significant reductions in homicides and sexual assaults.
Safer Cities Initiative Promising - One study A place-based policing intervention that targeted crime and disorder associated with homeless encampments. The program is rated Promising. For both the comparison and target areas, there was a significant decline in nuisance, property and violent crimes during the time of the initial pilot phase and an additional small decline after the full-scale program was implemented. However, further results showed a downward trend unique to the target area.
Schenectady Public Surveillance Project Promising - One study A crime prevention program seeking to impact crime and disorder through the installation of public surveillance cameras in one medium-sized city in the northeastern United States. The program is rated Promising. The installation of cameras led to significant reductions in total crime and total disorder in the target area. However, no significant impact was found on violent crime or property crime.
Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program (Albuquerque, N.M.) Promising - One study The program aims to provide specialized and coordinated services to victims of sexual assault during their first contact with the health care environment. The program is rated Promising. The treatment group had more referrals, spent less time receiving treatment than the control group spent in the emergency department; received more medical treatment; had higher levels of evidence collection; and had more reports to the police and prosecutions.
Targeted Gun Law Messaging Promising - One study This is a mail campaign intended to deter illegal firearm transactions in Los Angeles, Calif., using a letter outlining the regulations and laws surrounding firearm ownership. The program is rated Promising. Those who received a letter were more than twice as likely to report their firearms stolen than those who did not. The mail campaign did not appear to have an impact on whether the firearm became a crime gun or not.
West Midlands (England) High-Crime-Causing Users (HCCU) Promising - One study An intensive community-based partnership between police and treatment providers in West Midlands that provided enhanced delivery and coordinated efforts and resources to high-risk offenders to reduce their offending behavior. The program is rated Promising. The program was shown to significantly reduce the average number of arrests for participants.
Broken Windows/Public Order Policing in High Crime Areas (CA) No Effects - One study The program was implemented in three midsized cities near the Los Angeles, California area, with the goal of examining effects on residents’ fear of crime, perceptions of collective efficacy and police legitimacy, and actual and perceived levels of crime and disorder. The program is rated No Effects. Findings revealed no significant impacts on any of the dependent variables, suggesting no indication of either beneficial effects or “backfire” effects in targeted areas.
Camera Use to Prevent Crime in Commuter Parking Facilities (Washington, D.C.) No Effects - One study A crime prevention strategy designed to reduce crime in Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority parking facilities through the introduction of digital cameras at the exits of the parking facilities to capture images of patrons’ license plates as they exited the facility. The program is rated as No Effects. Crime rates (including car-related, property, and violent crimes) remained at pre-camera levels in parking facilities.
Gang Reduction Program (Richmond, VA) No Effects - More than one study A comprehensive, multiyear initiative to reduce gang crime and violence among youth through a combination of strategies. This program is rated No Effects. The program did not have a significant effect on drug-related incidents or offenses, serious violent incidents or offenses, or school dropout rates in the target area. Additionally, the program did not have a significant effect on gang-related incidents, school attendance, or graduation rates in the target area.
Hot Spots Policing (Jacksonville, FL) No Effects - One study A geographically focused policing strategy intended to reduce violent crime in high-crime areas using problem-oriented policing and directed patrol techniques. The program is rated No Effects. There was a significant reduction in nondomestic violent crime (i.e., street violence) in hot spots that were assigned to the problem-oriented policing condition, but no significant reductions in violent crime, property crime, and calls for service.
License Plate Recognition Technology (as a Crime Deterrent) No Effects - More than one study The vehicle-scanning device deployed by law enforcement is used to detect wanted vehicles (such as those reported stolen or missing). The program is rated No Effects. The technology did not have a general deterrent effect on all crimes or on offense-specific crimes (e.g., auto theft/theft from auto and auto-Related Crimes).
Phoenix (Arizona) Homicide Clearance Project No Effects - One study The program’s primary goal was to improve homicide clearance rates by increasing investigative time through the transfer of four crime scene specialists to the homicide unit. The program is rated No Effects. The evaluation found no statistically significant differences on the outcomes.
Police Foot Patrol–Philadelphia 2010 No Effects - More than one study This strategy is aimed at reducing crime at violent-crime hot spots in Philadelphia, Pa., through police foot patrols. It involved having veteran officers patrol areas (an average of 3 miles of streets) during one shift per day. This program is rated No Effects. Relative to the control areas, increasing foot patrols at violent-crime hot spots had no impact on violent crimes, violent felonies, or citizens’ perceptions of crime and safety.
Second Responders Program (Redlands, CA) No Effects - One study The program model enlists second responders to make home visits to try to help victims find long-term solutions to help repeat incident victims of family violence including intimate partner abuse, abuse within families or households, and elder abuse. The program is rated No Effects. Overall, the evidence found no statistically significant differences between the treatment and control groups on prevalence of and frequency of new domestic incidents and time to failure.
Weed and Seed (Miami, Fla.) No Effects - One study This is a community-based approach to reducing and preventing crime while revitalizing the community. The program is rated No Effect. There was no significant reduction in violent offenses in the Liberty City treatment area after the crackdown, but reductions were observed in the control and displacement catchment (buffer) areas.

 

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